[译]通过有氧运动来增肌减脂[减肥方法,减肥知识] 

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swanlin128

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译者序: 感谢大家对swan我的健康饮食+锻炼方法的翻译的支持。应该会有个更加全面的了解。同时我会持续的翻译健康瘦身方面的文章。希望跟大家一起在寻找适合自己的健康生活方式里面前进~欢迎大家结合下面这两篇文章一起来阅读:

Get Ripped and Lose fat by doing Cardiovascular Exercise

       通过有氧运动来增肌减脂
来自:www.rippednaturally.com

and the proper way to do it

合适的方法来实现

Some people say cardio is not necessary cause you can just eat less food and skip the cardio, well there is more to cardio than burning calories during it, actually burning calories during it has little to nothing to do with the change in your physique, the fat burning benefits you get from cardio are hormones that are secreted during and after cardio that elevates your metabolism to burn fat while you're resting, and prevent food from accumulating into fat.

一些人认为有氧运动并不必要。你可以通过少吃就能减肥。那么实际上有氧运动不仅仅是在运动是燃烧卡路里,实际上,运动燃烧的卡路里对改变你的体型起的作用十分微小,脂肪的燃烧的秘诀有氧产生的荷尔蒙。在有氧运动中和之后,他提升了你的新陈代谢。新陈代写的能够在休息的时候同样燃烧脂肪,阻止食物堆积成脂肪。


It's important to remember that cardio is an important thing that you do which prevents food from accumulating on your body as both fat and muscle, but you can still gain muscle depending on other hormones such as testosterone, and how much of the thyroid hormone T3 is being produced in your body (read more about thyroid hormones here), cause T3 prevents both fat and more muscle from accumulating on your body than other thyroid hormones. Later I'll explain how to get more T2 rather than T3 from cardio, since T2 allows for more muscle growth to occur than T3. The point of being able to eat more without it having to turn into bodyfat, will enable you to increase your metabolism faster. When you eat a lot while doing lots of intense cardio your body will simply use some of the food as energy, turn some into glycogen, then most of it will actually get "wasted", yep, not excreted or turned into bodyfat/muscle, your metabolism will simply waste the calories (through many hormonal processes, but it all comes down to thermogenesis), cause it has no use for them, and in turn that will increase your metabolism, cause your metabolism HAS to increase to waste the calories.

请记住,有氧运动很重要,他不但阻止食物堆积成脂肪和肌肉,而且你可以通过其他荷尔蒙,比如雄性激素等来增加肌肉,肌肉的增加去却与身体生产的甲状腺激素T3的含量,T3比其他激素更容易阻止肌肉和脂肪的堆积。接着我会解释如何通过有氧运动获得更多的T2,而非T3,因为T2比T3能够让你增加更多肌肉。关键是T2能够加快新陈代谢。当你在做大量高清有氧的同时,你吃很多食物,将把食物变成能量,转化为糖元,而大多数是被浪费了。是的,不是被排泄掉,或者变成体脂肪或者肌肉,你的新陈代谢将很容易浪费这些卡路里,因为没有使用这些能力,反过来这会加快新陈代谢,让你的新陈代谢必须去浪费卡路里。


未完待续~

swanlin128

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I have been on 8,000 calorie diets while doing intense cardio for 2 months, and after those 2 months were over, I only gained about 4 pounds.  I then quit the cardio and continued the same 8,000 calorie diet for 2 more months and I gained 35 pounds!  Now I know for sure that each of my intense cardio workouts are only burning about 300 calories per session, which is not enough to subtract from 8000 calories, BUT what is important here is your overall metabolism.  Keep in mind your body is not a machine but rather a force of nature that will do anything in it's power to reduce the amount of stress you have through out your daily lives.

我曾经坚持过2个月在做高强度有氧运动的同时,每天8000卡路里里的饮食,2个月后,我只长了4磅。接着我又坚持了2个月,每天8000卡路里而不运动,结果是我长了35磅!现在我很肯定的知道,我所做的高强度有氧运动之燃烧了300卡路里,这跟8000卡路里相比微不足道,但是重要的是,你的整体新陈代谢。记住,你的身体不适机器,而是自然的力量,他会为了减少你日常生活的压力做任何事情 。

Your body's number one objective is to survive.  When it comes to doing lots of intense cardio, your body reacts accordingly and cranks up your metabolic rate to make sure you do not get any heavier.
你身体最重要的目的是生存。当你做大量高强度的有氧时,你的身体做出反应,并且提高新陈代谢率来保证你不会变重。

If eating large amounts of calories with intense cardio does not enable you to lose fat then what calorie range does?  Should you do cardio with a high calorie diet or a low calorie diet?  The answer is BOTH!  That's right, since a high calorie diet along with intense cardio speeds up your metabolism GREATLY, then occasionally lowering it (especially your carb intake) can DRAMATICALLY increase fat loss during the "low" times.  But if you stick with the low calorie range for too long your metabolism will slow down.  Before your metabolism adjusts to the low calorie diet, you go right back to the "high" calorie diet to prevent your metabolism from slowing down.  This is probably the best fat loss diet method in existence!  I am happy to say I got totally shredded quick by using this method and it's what I use every time now to lose fat.
如果吃大量卡路里和高强度有氧不能让你减脂,那吃多少合适呢?在做有氧时,你到底该吃多还是吃少?答案是都要!是这样的,因为运动时的高卡饮食会大大加快你的新陈代谢,而偶尔少吃能够显著的增加低卡日脂肪的消耗。但如果你长期坚持低卡饮食,你的新陈代谢会放慢。当你的新陈代谢适应低卡饮食之前,马上回到高卡饮食,来阻止其变慢。这可能是现存的最好的减脂饮食法!我非常高兴的说通过这个方法我快速的减脂,而且这是我每天使用的减脂方法。

Also known as the Zig-Zag diet or High/Low diet, it works!  So how many days do you eat high and how many to eat low?  And how many calories for each?  Well, I am starting to go off the subject, since this is a cardio article, so you can check out my Zig-Zag diet method for fat loss right here.
这又名Zig-Zag饮食法或者高低卡饮食,非常有效!那么你吃多和吃少的天数有多少 ?每次多少卡路里?好的,我将开始离开这个话题,因为我们是讲有氧运动的文章,如果你感兴趣,可以参照:[译]Zig-Zag 循环饮食法高新陈代谢减脂

swanlin128

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The Hormonal response to cardio

荷尔蒙对有氧运动的反应

The main hormone secreted when doing cardio is GH, secondly TSH (thyroid Stimulating Hormone). The more intense you do it the more of those hormones will get secreted. The point of these hormones is to help your body adapt to the physical stress your doing (cardio), your body does everything in its power to keep you from getting heavier, which involves preventing food from accumulating on your body as fat. If you regularly do intense cardio (even if it's just 2-3 times a week) for only like 15 minutes, that is generally enough to help keep most food you eat from accumulating on your body. Yes, you can eat all the pizza, cake, pie, tons of calories whatever you want, and you most likely wont gain weight or extremely slowly at the least, your body looks at this as a threat to your survival of the surroundings of your environment. But keep in mind in order for this non-accumulating of food to occur, you must push yourself as hard as you can with your cardio workouts. You can even take this a step further and do 4-7  15-30 minute intense cardio sessions a week and REALLY get the fat burning hormones flowing BIG TIME!

当有氧运动时,荷尔蒙的分泌主要在于生长激素,其次是甲状腺促进素。越高强度有氧运动,分泌的激素越多。这些荷尔蒙帮助你的身体适应身体的压力,当你坐有氧时,你的身体所做的每件事,都是为了防止你变胖,防止食物堆积成脂肪。如果你规律的进行高强度有氧,甚至一周2-3次,每次仅15 分钟,这也足以防止你吃的大多数食物堆积成脂肪。是的,你可以吃所有的披萨,蛋糕,派,随便多少卡路里,基本上你几乎不会长胖或者只是缓慢的张一点点,你的身体把这看成对你身体的威胁。但记住,为了不让食物堆积发生,你必须要求自己在做有氧运动的时候尽全力。你甚至可以进一步,一周做4-7次高清度有氧,每次15-30分钟,这样让脂肪燃烧的荷尔蒙运转起来的大成功!

swanlin128

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Long, moderate intensity cardio raises the following hormones: GH, TSH, T3, cortisol, Some T2. note: T3 and cortisol eat away at both fat and muscle

长时间,中等强度的有氧运产生的荷尔蒙: 生长激素GH,甲状腺促进素TSH,T3,皮质醋,一些T2.注意: T3和皮质醋能够消耗脂肪和肌肉


Short, high intensity cardio raises the following hormones: GH, TSH, T2, and some T3. note:T2 preserves more muscle than T3.

短时间,高强度的有氧运产生的荷尔蒙: 生长激素GH,甲状腺促进素TSH,T2,一些T3.注意: T2比T3能够保持更多肌肉

Long, low intensity cardio raises the following hormones: generally little to none at all.

长时间,低等强度的有氧运产生的荷尔蒙: 通常没有  


The best way to increase your metabolism is a combination of doing intense cardio, and eating lots of calories all through out the day. Eating plenty of food helps your body adapt to its environment better, and in the case of cardio, it will help you lose fat. This is the key to getting that lean small look.
最好的提高新陈代谢的方法是:每天吃大量卡路里的同时做高强度有氧。吃足够的食物帮助你的身体更好的适应环境,至于有氧运动,他会帮助你消耗脂肪。这就是变得苗条的关键。

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鸡肠文?看不懂

swanlin128

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What kind of cardio should I do?

我们应该做什么样的有氧运动?

Now here's something interesting to note, do you think walking as a form of a cardio workout is a threat to your survival and that your body will prevent all incoming food from accumulating on your body? I don't think so, unless walking for you is difficult and intense to do or if your doing it over 3.5 MPH at an incline of over 5%. Remember, the goal of cardio workouts are not about burning fat during the workout, the real goal is to obtain a positive adaptation that will allow you to change the shape of your body accordingly so that the exercise will be easier for you to do next time.  It's important to keep in mind that most of your calories you burn in a day is not directly from the activities that you do but rather your metabolism which is created from the activities that you do. In other words, changes to your physique are due to your metabolism and not burning calories during physical activities. The only time your changing your physique from burning calories from physical activities is when your starving yourself (this is actually done by the last week or so of a bodybuilder preparing for a contest, trying to get totally shredded, but they are losing muscle at the same time with this process). Remember, burning fat during cardio is not the real fat loss benefits you get from cardio, its all about adaptations to your environment, and this is all done by hormones.

现在有一些有趣的事情可以注意,你认为走路时有氧运动的一种方式,而且威胁你的生存,那么你的身体会阻止所有的食物积累吗?我不认为,除非对你来说走路很困难和高强度,或者你超过每小时5.6公里速度在大于5度的斜坡上行走。记住,有氧运动目的不在于运动时候的燃脂,而在于获得一个积极的适应,那样通过改变你的体型,让你接下来的运动进行更加容易。记住这点很重要,你每天消耗的绝大多数卡路里都不是在运动时消耗的,而是有新陈代谢消耗掉的。换句话说,改变体型不在于做运动时的燃脂而在于新陈代谢。唯一运动时燃烧卡路里改变你的体型的是当你饿肚子时。记住,有氧时的燃脂并不是其真正的好处,真正的好处在通过帮你适应环境,所产生的荷尔蒙。

If you see any treadmill (or cardio equipment) that shows you how many calories are being burned, you should either disable it, or put a sticker over it so you cannot see it, because that number means NOTHING to your success.
如果你看见任何跑步机或者有氧器材显示你所消耗的卡路里数,你应该不去理会他,因为这些数字对你的成功毫无意义。

swanlin128

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Another interesting comparison is looking at distance marathon runners verses sprinters (see pic below). Notice how marathon runners are generally a lot skinnier with less muscle than sprinters who have a lot more muscle with still the same low amount of body fat? It's because of too much T3 and cortisol eating away at everything (fat and muscle) the marathon runner has so they get very light, so that the stress of running long distances is reduced greatly.

另外一个有趣的对比是如下的马拉松运动员和短跑运动员对比图。

注意到在同样很少体脂肪的同时,马拉松运动员开起来如此皮包骨头到只有少量肌肉,而短跑运动员却又大量肌肉。这都归功于过多的T3和皮质醇消耗了马拉松运动员的脂肪和肌肉,所以他们非常的轻,所以长跑运动员的压力会减轻很多 。

Marathon Runner Vs Sprinter

Marathon Runner  -  Sprinter

马拉松运动员-短跑运动员

Now putting this info together its easy to say that short intense cardio workouts is so much superior to longer less intense cardio. It enables you to lose fat and keep you from getting fatter, while allowing you to preserve more muscle than longer durations.
现在把这些信息放在一起能够很容易说,短高强度的有氧运动由于长低强度的有氧运动。这让你减脂而不长胖,而且比长时间更容易保持更多肌肉。

Did you know that you will get so many more positive fat loss and muscle maintenance benefits from doing a short 2 minute intense cardio workout, than you would from doing a whole 1 hour low intensity cardio workout?  Yes it is true!  You can thank me later for saving you so much time in the gym!
你知道2分钟的短高强度有氧运动,能够让你减脂增肌,比你做1小时长低强度有氧运动好得多?这是真的!你应该谢谢我为你在健身房里节约了如此多的时间。

As far as what kind of cardio is better than the other (such as swimming, running, jump roping, hiking, dancing, etc.., there is none! It's usually good to do different ones every now and then for a change of stress, which equates to more GH output.

至于哪种有氧运动更好?比如游泳,跑步,跳绳,徒步,跳舞等等。没有最好!常常更换不同的运动方式,更换对身体不同的压力,相当于生成更多地生长激素才是好方法。

swanlin128

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how frequently should I do cardio?

有氧运动的频率?

Keeping in mind the more short and intense the better, it's good to mix up your cardio workouts, if running is the type of cardio you like doing, then say, do interval training one day, and do a 10-15 minute fast run the next day etc..

记住越短越高强度越好,最好混合你的有氧运动,如果你喜欢跑步,那么,可以做间歇性训练,另外一天做10-15分钟快跑。


Generally you don't have to do cardio every day to keep the hormones flowing, your body still releases hormones from a workout days after a workout and sometimes weeks, months, years, and/or decades after depending on how long of your life you've been doing cardio or whatever workout it may be (more on this below). I'd say do at least one cardio workout a week no matter what your goal is (gaining muscle or losing fat), but if your goal is to lose fat I'd probably do about 5 to 7 cardio workouts a week (usually like every day, or every other day). I'd say if your a beginner do 3 a week, someone who has been doing cardio for a long time, it would not hurt to switch to only 3 or 4 a week, this is because of the long term hormonal effect of exercise. If Someone's goal is to gain muscle, they would probably only want to do 0 to 2 cardio sessions a week, doing only a few short sprints, usually only like two-four 15 - 30 second sprints. that's it. If you already have an extremely fast metabolism I'd do no cardio at all if your trying to gain muscle.  And if sprints are too hard for you to do, then try to just keep it short and intense as possible.
通常来说你不需要每天做有氧来让荷尔蒙升高,在运动后的日子里,甚至是之后的星期,月或者年,你的身体仍然在分泌荷尔蒙,这取决于你做的有氧的时间和类型。无论你的目标是什么,我建议你每周至少做一次有氧。我会说,如果你才开始运动,一周3次,如果你已经做了很长时间的悠扬,那么一周3-4次将不会有什么伤害,这是因为长期荷尔蒙作用的结果。如果你的目标是增加肌肉,你可能只需要一周做0-2次的有氧,仅仅是少量的短跑,大概2-4次的15-30秒的短跑。是这样。如果你已经有了非常高的新陈代谢,如果你想张肌肉,我会建议不要做有氧。如果短跑对你来说太困难,可以试着让他越短越激烈越好。

swanlin128

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Why NOT do the same "fat burning phase" cardio sessions with your gaining muscle phases? Cause like I said, this will stop you from gaining muscle along with fat. Your goal during the gaining muscle phase is to slow your metabolism down a bit so you can gain muscle. Doing cardio will prevent this. But, like I said, short sprints will not hinder muscle mass gains, while keeping your fat in check as best as possible.

为什么在增肌阶段不做一样咯燃脂有氧运动?因为正如我所说,这会停止你的增肌和脂肪。在增肌阶段,你的目标是稍稍减慢一点新陈代谢,这样你可以增长肌肉。而作有氧是阻止这点。但,如我所说,短跑会尽可能的控制你的脂肪而不会阻碍增肌。

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Long Term Hormonal Effect of Exercise
运动的长期荷尔蒙效应

Did you know that a cardio workout you do today, will still help you stay lean years down the road?  That is because your body is figuring out your overall pattern of life, and will adjust body composition accordingly for the rest of your life.  Have you noticed that people who were active as kids (they played sports and kept active), remain somewhat lean the rest of their lives, while people who were not active as kids are the ones growing up with weight problems such as obesity?  Yeah every workout you do, whether it's a weight workout or a cardio workout, will still be paying off for you decades into the future!
你知道你今天所做的有氧运动,将在多年后仍然帮助你保持苗条吗?这是因为你的身体已经估算出你的整体生活方式,他会让你的身体为你接下来的生活相应的做出调整,保持苗条,同时那些不如孩子活跃的成年人,却有着体重问题,比如肥胖症?是的,你所做的每次运动,无论是体重锻炼还是有氧端来年,在多年后依旧会给你回报的~

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等我翻译来献玫瑰

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At what time of the day should I do cardio?
每天在什么时候做有氧?

Anytime you feel you have the highest amount of intensity to do it, after at least your first meal of the day, and that insulin is settled down a bit (this is done by not eating a high carb meal before the workout and that you've waited at least an hour after eating to do it.) The reason why you don't want so much insulin in your bloodstream while your working out is because insulin prevents GH from being secreted.

至少在一天中第一顿饭后,当胰岛素稳定下来(通过在运动前不吃高碳水化合物,而且运动后至少等一小时后再吃),是最适合做运动的时候。在你运动时你不希望你的血液中有很多胰岛素的原因是,胰岛素阻止生长激素的分泌。

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Most people will say first thing in the morning on an empty stomach is the best time to do cardio, reason being is because your body is short on glycogen supply and will take only fat for fuel for the workout. This is nonsense. The point of doing cardio is alterating your internal hormonal environment that increases your metabolism, not burning fat during the workout. There are several important reasons why you should not do cardio first thing in the morning. One, you are more prone to injury, you just woke up from a 6+ hours of sleeping, your body needs warming up before doing intense exercise. Two, your intensity will be decreased, which is extremely important for a good hormonal excreting cardio workout. Three, when you wake up in the morning the hormone cortisol is raised which is the "main" catabolic hormone, which goes away after eating breakfast. Breakfast jumpstarts your metabolism for the day, skipping breakfast and doing cardio instead raises catabolic hormones even more and slows your metabolism, which is a good formula for losing muscle and gaining fat!

大多数人说当清晨胃部空空的时候是做有氧的最好时机,原因是你的身体里的糖元短缺,这样当你运动时,就只会用脂肪作为能源供给。这是没有道理的。做有氧的关键是在于改变你体内的荷尔蒙环境,从而提高新陈代谢,而不是运动中的脂肪燃烧。清晨的第一件事不应该是有氧有几个重要的原因:

第一,刚从超过6小时的睡眠中醒来,在做强烈运动前,你的身体需要热身,所以你更容易受伤。

其次,降低强度,对于分泌好激素的有氧运动很重要。

第三,当你醒来时,皮质醇升高,成为主要的代谢激素,会在早饭后小时。

早餐启动你一天中的新陈代谢,不吃早餐就做有氧会增加分解代谢激素,而且减慢新陈代谢,这正是增加脂肪失去肌肉的不二准则!

swanlin128

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How do I combine my cardio workouts with my weight workouts?

有氧和力量锻炼如何搭配?

Although it's better to do cardio and weights on separate days. When doing both on the same day do resistance exercise first (but a 5 minute aerobic warm-up is beneficial before weight training to get the blood pumping). It's more important to preserve your strength, energy, and intensity for the weight training part of your workout, because intensity is more critical to weight training than to cardio training. 

虽然有氧和力量在不同的日子里做更好。当一天中有氧和力量都要锻炼的时候,先做阻力锻炼(但先进行5分钟的有氧热身,对于力量训练的供血更好)。更重要的是,注意你的力量训练的力量,能量,和强度,因为跟有氧运动相比,强度对于力量训练更重要。

Although you can do two separate workouts during the day, doing cardio earlier in the day, then do resistance later on in the day, making sure you have several meals in-between that time. But if your doing them all in one workout, do resistance first, then cardio.
然而你也可以在一天中分开做有氧和力量,先做有氧,然后在晚些时候做力量,确保期间吃过饭。但如果力量有氧是连续做的话,那么先做力量,后做有氧。

Before I outline typical cardio workouts, it's important to know that you should mix things up every now and then, for example, do interval training one day then a 20 minute run the next day etc..
在我描述出典型的有氧运动前,你应该不时的混合运动,这很重要。例如,一天做间歇训练,另外一天做20分钟的跑步。


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Cardio workout examples to do:
有氧运动的例子:

Please note: when I say 10-15 minute cardio workouts I am referring to your actual "up-time" or actual time of high intensity (or high heart rate) and I am not referring to your "warmup", if it takes you 20 minutes to "warmup" before you really start getting your heart rate up, then I generally do not count that.  So your total time doing the cardio could be about 45 minutes, when really the first 20 minutes is just a slower pace to get you warmed up before you really start "pushing" it.  Your goal should be to generally get your heart rate in the 70%-90% range for about 15-20 minutes nonstop.
注意:当我说 10-15分钟有氧运动,我指的是你真正的高强度或者高心率时间,不是指你热身的时间,如果你花了20分钟热身,让你的心率加快,我们不会计算在内。因为你总共的运动时间应该是45分钟,当你花了20分钟去热身的时候。你的目标应该是让你的心率达到70%-90%,不间断的持续15-20分钟。

Interval training
间歇训练


The "jogs", are just warm ups or resting between "sets". The sprints are running as fast as you possibly can.

慢跑,是用来热身或者在组合之间做休息的。短跑是尽全力的快速跑。

jog 5 minutess

print 45 seconds

jog 2.25 minutes
sprint 45 seconds
jog 2.25 minutes
sprint 45 seconds
jog 2.25 minutes
sprint 40 seconds
jog 2.25 minutes
sprint 30 seconds
jog 2.25 minutes

慢跑 5分钟

短跑 45秒

慢跑2.25分钟

短跑45秒

慢跑2.25分钟

短跑45秒

慢跑2.25分钟

短跑40秒

慢跑2.25分钟

短跑30秒

慢跑2.25分钟

19:40 total

14:15 downtime

3:25 uptime

总共19分40秒

低速 14分15秒

高速 3分25秒

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